Flag of Scotland

Our Knox/Craig ancestors emigrated from Scotland, to Ireland and then to America arriving in Charles Town, S.C. in 1767. South Carolina paid bounty to Scots-Irish willing to settle in the frontier acting  as a buffer between the coastal plantations and the Indians, a perfect role for the Scots-Irish warriors. Edith McIntire Holder, my maternal grandmother, was a descendant of these ancestors.

James Knox Sr. was born on July 26, 1713, in Glasgow, Lanarkshire, Scotland. His parents were John Knox and Agnes Johnstone. (Not John Knox, the Reformer, whose two sons did not have descendants.) On December 26, 1719, Lady Elizabeth Craig was born on the other coast of Scotland in Edinburgh. Her parents were John Craig and Elizabeth Moir/More. She was an only child. It is thought her father’s estate reverted to the Crown because he died without a male heir. Even after she married, it has been said, she used the honorific Lady with her married name. This is unusual, but I found one of her great aunt’s who was able to prove her claim to land and a title, because she never gave up her title. Perhaps, Elizabeth hoped the same could happen to her.

The Knox and Craig families had at least one connection over the years, with a Craig mentioned in conjunction with John Knox, the Reformer. Our James Knox and Elizabeth Craig married in Lanarkshire, Scotland. They were of the Covenanters Church, the Reformed Presbyterian Church, and raised their children in strict obedience to God’s laws.

Children born in Scotland:

1740-1830, Mary. Married Pollock/Polk by Reverend William Martin.  Mary Polk remained in Ireland. Some genealogists have said Mary’s children immigrated to the colonies and were the ancestors of President James Polk. I have found no evidence of either, with President Polk’s ancestors already in the colonies by this time.

1742-1839, Janet. Married John (JR) Gaston in fall of 1768 by his father Justice John Gaston.

1744-1818, John. Married Elizabeth Eoff on Feb 12, 1789. The groom was forty-five and Elizabeth was eighteen, the first marriage for both. It was said John didn’t marry until later in life since he was too busy taking care of the farm. He died in 1818 at seventy-four years of age, leaving three minor children.

1749-1781, James. Married Jannet Miller in 1770. James was murdered by Tory neighbors during the Revolutionary War.

1751-1830, William. Married Patience Gill about 1779.  Died Oct 31, 1830 at age 78.

 In 1752, the family traveled by ship from Scotland across the Irish Sea to Belfast, then settled in the  Ballymoney area of North Antrim, Ireland with other Covenanters, where they farmed rented land.

Children born in Ireland:

1753-1843, Samuel. Married Caroline Jones in 1780. They were married by her uncle John Simpson, a Presbyterian minister with Margaret Knox Eoff as a waiter (witness.) Caroline’s mother was a Simpson.

1755-1832, Elizabeth. Married Samuel Morrow in 1776, Chester Co, SC. Final move was to Laurence County Alabama, then onto Fayette Co, Alabama. She died by Sept 3, 1832. Samuel was born in 1743 and died March 8, 1835. He had emigrated from Ireland to the colonies at the age of fourteen.       

1758, April 11-1861, Robert. Married Elizabeth Gill in 1784. In 1817, Robert married (1) Elizabeth Gill, ca 1763-ca 1809. Then he married (2) Mildred (Milly) Bohannon ca 1792-1861. 

1763-1848, Margaret. Married Isaac Eoff on March 12, 1783, in her father’s home in Chester Co, SC. Rev. John Simpson performed the ceremony, with Margaret’s childhood friend, Catherine Jones Knox, now her brother, Samuel’s, wife and six months pregnant with her first child present at the ceremony. Isaac died Sept 26, 1848 in Carroll County, AR. (Now Boone County.) See Eoff, Elliott, and Todd stories for more on this family line.

1760-1850, Joseph. Never married. Was blind.

1765-1842, Nancy Agnes (Ann). Married Jacob Sutton (blacksmith) on Jan 1, 1784. He was born in 1758 and died in 1836. The wedding was most likely performed in the home of her parents with her father Justice James Knox, Sr. officiating.  Final move was to Laurence County Alabama. Named Agnes after paternal grandmother.

1767, Susan was born on board ship to America, where she died and was burned at sea.

 On July 25, 1761, South Carolina passed an act which paid the passage and, upon arrival, provided each head of household over 16 years of age a grant of 100 acres and 50 acres to his wife and each child. In March 1767, the family sailed (on the Earl of Hillsborough, disputed, more likely on the Prince of Wales) from Belfast for Charles Town, South Carolina. As they departed on the ship, Elizabeth was 48 years old and pregnant with her last child, with twelve other children ranging from 2-25 years of age.

On May 28, 1767, South Carolina Warrants and Petitions indicate Knox family received 450 acres in a land grant from the General Assembly of South Carolina in Chester County, S.C.,  100 miles into the Carolina upcountry. A wagon, head of oxen, plough, seeds and provisions were purchased in Charleston from grant monies. The family moved up the Santee/Catawba Rivers and settled on land close to Fishing Creek in Chester County. The family lived out of wagon until cabin was finished. After the cabin was built, they could enjoy a Saturday night bath in front of the fireplace. They attended the Old Richardson Meeting House on Fishing Creek for Sunday services, also called the Catholic Church, comprised of Covenanters, Associates and Presbyterians, on Rocky Creek. By 1772, the Covenanters had their own church, called Reformed Church, with Reverend William Martin as the minister. He was their minister in Ireland and came over from Ireland bringing the rest of the congregation.  Most of the family is mentioned in the Fishing Creek Presbyterian Church visitation list in 1771 – 1774.

Land had to be cleared and planted for fall harvest. The oldest son, John, took the lead in developing the family farm on Rocky Creek.

Shortly after the Knox/Craig family’s arrival in the colonies, tensions between the colonies and England began to develop, but didn’t really affect people on the frontier, who were busy clearing their fields, protecting their families from Indians and raising crops and kids.  

Passage of the Declaration of Independence  on July 4, 1776, did not pass unnoticed on the frontier, but most people carried on with their busy lives. However, ultimately the Revolutionary War affected all their lives. Subscribe to my blog to see other posts as they are posted.  

Source: “James Knox Sr. and Elizabeth Craig Knox and their Descendants,” compiled by Lorene K. Petersen and Jennie Bell Lyle, 1984.

Copyright, 2012 by Andrea Musgrove Perisho.



Flag of Germany

Generations of wars and heavy taxation in southern Germany plus a severe winter in 1709 caused devastation in the land and impoverished the people, making many families seek relief by migrating.

They were called “Palatines” as most were from the Palatinate region of Germany. One group left in 1708, but a larger group left in 1709. They traveled down the Rhine River to Holland and camped near Rotterdam waiting for ships to England. Of 13,000 Germans who reached London in 1709, only an estimated quarter came on to New York.  The rest found refuge in other places. The huge migration overwhelmed the British government and caused a big political uproar.

Queen Anne encouraged this Protestant migration to her American colonies. Most boarded ships for New York in December 1709, but did not leave England until April 1710. They sailed on eleven crowded boats with unsanitary conditions. Typhus was a problem for these already malnourished refugees. Four hundred seventy people , most children, died before reaching America. With about twenty-one hundred survivors, the Palatine immigration was the largest single immigration to America in the colonial period.  

On reaching New York in June 1710, the ships were quarantined on Nutten Island (now Governor’s Island). Governor Hunter of New York needed the immigrants for the making of naval supplies of pitch, turpentine and tar. Most families first settled along the Hudson River in work camps, to pay off their passage. (This was not a well-thought out process, since Governor Hunter’s pine trees were the incorrect species for producing the needed naval supplies, causing more hardship for the refugees.) Some widows and children, deemed as unfit for the work camps, were left in New York.

Our first Eoff ancestor to come to colonial America was Hans Jacob Eoff (variously spelled Öff, Hoof, Oave and Offin) born October 17, 1679 in Grossheppach, Germany. He was serving an apprenticeship as a weaver, when his illegitimate son Johann Jacob Öff, born to Magdalena Nussbaum, was baptized on April 10, 1702.  Han Jacob and Magdalena married on June 14, 1702. Since an apprentice could not be married, the financial burden of not having a trade and the lure of cheap land could be the reason for the family’s migration. A subsistence list on July 1, 1710 in New York shows the Hans Jacob Off family with five members. By October 4, 1710, the family had decreased to three members. Hans Jacob Eoff died on September 24, 1710 on Governor’s Island, probably from typhus. A child must have also died before October 4, 1710. Magdalena Offin was listed with John Jacob Offin age 8 (or Johann Jacob Off/Eoff our direct ancestor and founder of the Eoff family in America), and Anna Barbara Offin age 6. Magdalena and her children were probably left in New York and did not go the ill-fated Hudson River work camps. She married Joan Peter Kassener (John Peter Castner) in New York 2 April, 1711.

Source for Eoff material – excerpts from “The Eoff Family from the Old World to the New”, from a manuscript by Roberta Grahame in “The McIntires and the Elliotts of Bickle’s Cove, Stone County, Arkansas and the descendents of John McIntire of Maury County, Tennessee” by Pauline Mitchell Pierce, January 1997.

The Eoff ancestors were in my maternal family line, through Edith McIntire Holder.

Copyrighted, 2012 by Andrea Musgrove Perisho.